The Benefits Of High Output Ignition Coils
A high-performance ignition coil enhances engine performance. It allows for a wider spark plug gap, which leads to a more robust first flame kernel at the beginning of combustion, resulting in increased voltage. There is a genuine enhancement in engine torque as an outcome of this. Another benefit of having greater power available is that it gets there quicker, allowing less time for voltage diversion via the inevitable carbon deposits on spark plugs. Most importantly, the electrical stream is pushed more forcefully and more quickly to the plug because of the higher voltage potential. With more voltage available, there is more reserve power for non-standard circumstances such as riding uphill on a hot day with low tire pressure and a 20mph headwind.
The voltage required to bridge the gap in the plug is not constant; it fluctuates and is nowhere near the ignition coil's voltage output potential. For example, a 60,000-volt ignition coil will only fire its spark plug at 60,000 volts when there is a high demand (load), higher rpm, and cylinder pressure, but at idle and low demand, it will fire at 7,000-20,000 volts.
How is this possible, and why is there an additional charge?
When a spark plug is ready to ignite, the air within its space is not conductive and must be made conductive. It is temporarily rendered conductive, a process known as "ionization," which has to do with the electrical charge of atoms. It essentially means the air is ready to conduct electricity. Spark plugs’ voltages heat and stimulate the air molecules to the point where voltage can travel through the agitated air to jump the plug's gap.
Detailed Guide: What Does A Map Sensor Do?
You must have heard the term, Map sensor sometimes at the mechanic’s shop. Perhaps, even during the time when your car salesperson is describing the various features of a vehicle. Have you ever wondered, what does a map sensor do exactly? Let us first understand that.
MAP sensor stands for the words – Manifold Absolute Pressure sensor and serves the function of detecting or measuring an internal combustion engine’s electronic control system. They provide manifold pressure data to the engine’s electronic control unit (ECU).
Importance of Map Sensors
While we have a basic understanding of what does a map sensor do, here is why it is most important:
-Most modern generations vehicles work on MAP sensors. The reason is simple. An MAP sensor helps generate efficient consumption of fuel. Many vehicles have bad MAP sensors which can lead to an overall poor performance. Thus, it becomes important for one to keep a check on the engine and the sensor.
-To detect a faulty MAP sensor, one is required to perform an engine diagnostic. This will give you an estimate of whether it is time for you to replace the MAP sensor.
-An MAP sensor is located on the intake manifold of a car’s engine. They are primarily installed in a place wherein they can provide instant manifold pressure to the engine’s ECU. There are some which make use of MAP that gives a result of optimum combustion whereas; others make use of MAF or Mass airflow sensor.
How Does a Map Sensor Work?
When the engine of a vehicle is not running, the pressure of the intake manifold is the same as the exterior barometric pressure. However, as soon as the engine starts; vacuum is generated, and there is more pressure around the intake manifold.
The vacuum inside an engine ranges from situation to situation. It can range from 0 to 22 inches or more. It depends on the operating condition the car is in. It may be at sea level or above sea level like a mountain where more oxygen is required.
At the time of ignition, the powertrain control module (PCM) turns to the MAP sensor for data. The data is determined by the MAP sensor according to the atmospheric pressure, as mentioned previously.
Following given are the essential elements that MAP sensors consider before estimating the data:
Different Uses of Map Sensor
How can we figure what does a map sensor do exactly and what are its actual uses? Following given are some of its uses:
1. Determines Fuel Consumption
Numerous fuel-injected engines make use of different systems to determine how much the engine has consumed fuel. Among the many, MAP is one such sensor that facilitates sending signals of pressure directly to the engine’s computer.
It is after this that the computer manages to make use of the information to calculate the vehicle’s air mass flow rate and air density. These two components are significant in adding to the productive output of any given vehicle.
It is after this that the computer can predict how much fuel is required for the best combustion rate.
2. Determines Fuel Delivery
There are several factors which play a major role when it comes to determining your engine’s fuel delivery. Elements like the engine speed or RPM, air temperature and air – to – fuel ratios all comprise an imperative part of this procedure.
The vehicle naturally accelerates faster when you provide it with abundant gas. Your desired speed thereby also depends on how fast your engine can run.
As you may be able to understand, MAP sensor utilizes these elements in determining the accurate information. The amount of gas to be pumped into the cylinder essentially depends on the data provided by MAP.
3. Adjusting with the Changing Environment
You may require normal fuel bumping in a city. However, requirements change when the car is traveling let’s say, on a high mountain. The car consumes more fuel in such an environment. Thus, the air – to – fuel ratio obviously differs.
MAP sensors deliver the respective requirement. MAP sensors supply relevant information to the engine, and the driver is kept informed of the same.
4. To Tell the RPM Difference
MAP sensor’s values change with the change in the number of activities in the car. The MAP sensor will showcase a 60kPa with an RPM of 1800. However, if you turn the air conditioning on; there is a slight difference in the outcome.
To send the proper signal to the computer, MAP sensors are essential.
5. MAP V/s. MAF Sensor
Many times, experts face the difficult question of which type of sensor is better for an engine. While, Mass Air Flow sensor or MAF sensor are fueled directly by both, mass air flow and speed-density calculations; MAP sensors calculate the density of air by measuring the temperature first.
MAF sensors are easier to tune. However, MAP sensors require lesser restriction when it comes to intake tract. People have experienced consistency with MAF.
How to Tell if You Have a Faulty Coil Pack
On newer vehicles, a coil pack(such as Toyota Ignition Coil Pack, Subaru Ignition Coil Pack) replaces the distributor. It is an electronically controlled pack of ignition coils regulated by the car's computer and is used to create the spark for each engine cylinder's spark plug. Generally speaking, coil packs are much more reliable than distributors, because there are no moving parts and because they fire much less often than a distributor. Coil packs usually create a better spark, which in turn produces better combustion and horsepower in a car's engine.
How a Coil Pack Works
When creating a spark at the spark plug, the fire must initiate from a high voltage supply, so as much fuel as possible burns in the cylinder. Whenever the combustion process is started, the coil pack builds up the energy, as much as 50,000 to 75,000 Volts. When the electronic control module (the car computer) sends the signal to the ignition control, the voltage is released from the coil pack through the spark plug cables to the spark plug.
When the spark travels to the spark plug, it jumps from the spark plug gap to the ground, causing an explosion of the fuel air mixture inside the cylinder chamber.
Coil Pack Problems
Usually, if a coil pack is bad, there will be a loss of fire or spark in one or more cylinders. This causes what's commonly referred to as misfiring. Misfiring can cause drag on the crankshaft, and usually results in a very poor performing engine.
Common Symptoms of a Faulty Coil Pack
A faulty coil pack will generally have symptoms similar to a faulty spark plug. Some of the most common tell tale signs that a coil may be defective include:
-A rough idle
-An unexplainably louder-than-usual engine
-A noticeable lack of power
-A significant drop in RPMs while accelerating for no apparent reason
-A blinking or intermittently activating check engine light
-An active gas warning light when the vehicle has plenty of gasoline
-Smoke from the exhaust emitting intermittently, instead of in a steady stream
How to Test a Coil Pack
Fortunately, there is an easy way to test the coil packs in your vehicle and make sure they're working as they should. You need to use ohm meter to test the coil pack for continuity. Make sure you have the approximate ohm values for the coil pack.
What Coil Pack Works with a Rotary Engine?
Most rotary engines require a different type of ignition coil pack. Below are two, one for a standard replacement, and one that is a higher voltage performance type coil pack.
WHAT ARE THE SIGNS OF A FAULTY IGNITION COIL?
The purpose of an BMW ignition coil is to convert the low current from a car battery into enough power to ignite the fuel and start the engine. When there is a problem with an ignition coil, it will cause a range of mechanical and performance issues. The following signs will warn you that your vehicle has a faulty ignition coil and get professional help from your Dealer.
LOSS OF POWER
This is one of the first symptoms of ignition coil failure. If you have ignition coil troubles, your vehicle will feel sluggish, and you will experience a loss of power. This is caused by irregular sparks to bring about the required combustion. When you experience a loss of power, take your vehicle for maintenance to avoid further damage that will cost you more money to repair.
CHECK ENGINE LIGHT ON
The check engine light will come on if your vehicle misfires or is hard to start. This problem is often caused by a malfunctioning ignition coil. The best cause of action is to contact your Cadillac technician for an engine diagnostic as soon as you can before the issue results in costly repairs.
POOR FUEL ECONOMY
If you drive the same distances but visit the gas station more often, it’s a sign of ignition coil failure. When an ignition coil fails, an incorrect 02 sensor read sends more gas than required. You will fill up more often because the spark plugs are not getting enough power, and to compensate, the system injects more fuel.
When your vehicle starts to backfire, a bad ignition coil could be the culprit. A vehicle makes a loud bang sound when unused fuel in the combustion cylinders explodes, causing black smoke to emerge from the exhaust pipe and the strong smell of gas. If the problem is not attended to immediately, it will cause damage to the system.
A malfunctioning ignition coil will cause your vehicle to misfire when you accelerate. In extreme cases, a misfire could cause your vehicle to shut down while you are driving. The misfire is a result of one of the cylinders fires incorrectly or not at all. The emission can cause damage to the catalytic converter and other engine components.
HARD STARTS AND STALLING
The ignition needs to spark at just the right time for the engine to start and a vehicle to run. If an ignition coil is malfunctioning and not delivering the required voltage to the spark plugs, you will find it hard to start the engine. If your vehicle stalls when you stop and even shut off completely, it could be a bad ignition coil sending irregular sparks to the spark plugs.
SPLUTTERING AND COUGHING SOUNDS
If you hear spluttering and coughing sounds when you start the engine, an ignition coil is causing the problem. The sounds come from a cylinder that is not firing at all during the ignition process.
JERKING AND VIBRATING
Another issue a failing ignition coil causes are vibrations when the vehicle is idling. You will also feel your vehicle hesitate and jerk forward when you step on the accelerator to increase speed.
Benefits of Individual Throttle Bodies
When it comes to naturally aspirated and turbocharged vehicles alike, it is hard to beat the response and efficiency of individual throttle bodies. Unfortunately because manufacturers often tend to prioritize cost over Peak power, individual throttle bodies are a rare sight in factory equipped vehicles, and generally limited only to the highest performing models such as the BMW M3 and Nissan Skyline. When cost is no object however, individual throttle bodies have several distinct advantages over their single throttle body counterparts.
Single Throttle Bodies
Most vehicles come from the factory with a single throttle body primarily due to cost concerns, as individual throttle bodies tend to be far more costly and contain far more individual parts. In a single throttle body design, air rushes into the intake manifold’s plenum when the throttle is opened. While the response is relatively quick, there is still a brief pause between the time the air rushes into and fills the plenum, and when it actually runs into each cylinder. No matter how well tuned the engine is, or how balanced and blueprinted its components are, this lag will always be present, however miniscule.
Individual Throttle Bodies
In a vehicle equipped with individual throttle bodies, the plenum if equipped, remains full of air whether the throttle is open or closed. Because of this pre-filled state, there is no wait when the throttle is opened, and air rushes directly into the engine, resulting in a crisp and responsive throttle. In some extensively modified, naturally aspirated engines, the plenum may be removed altogether, allowing room for tuned velocity stacks designed to compliment a specific power curve and make more useable power. In high horsepower engines, individual throttle bodies also tend to flow air more efficiently, freeing up power and complimenting high lift cams or high levels of boost.
Individual throttle bodies, when run without a plenum may be more susceptible to dirt and dust and excessively loud for street use. These engines should not be operated in areas of excessive dust and dirt without adequate filtration. It should be noted that for vehicles equipped with mass air flow sensors, a sealed intake system will be required for proper operation, as is the case with Nissan’s RB26DETT engine, which is equipped with a standard plenum style intake manifold equipped with individual throttle bodies. Individual throttle body kits are generally very expensive due to the precision and machining required. Often times as much as 3-6x more than a comparable single throttle body upgrade. Because of the limited power increases they may make with an otherwise stock engine, they are often times better suited as a finishing touch rather than a starting point.
The power your engine can generate can be limited by restrictions and inefficiencies. At stock power levels, these restrictions may not be apparent. But in a highly tuned engine, they can become severe bottle necks to airflow, and thus largely reduce power. Individual throttle bodies not only offer superior response, but they also reduce these restrictions, freeing up power through improved airflow, with little to no trade off other than cost and increased engine noise.